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Objects.hxx

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Copyright (c) 1998 - 2007, The Regents of the University of California
// Produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
// All rights reserved.
//
// This file is part of PyCXX. For details,see http://cxx.sourceforge.net/. The
// full copyright notice is contained in the file COPYRIGHT located at the root
// of the PyCXX distribution.
//
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// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
//
//  - Redistributions of  source code must  retain the above  copyright notice,
//    this list of conditions and the disclaimer below.
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//    this  list of  conditions  and  the  disclaimer (as noted below)  in  the
//    documentation and/or materials provided with the distribution.
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// DAMAGE.
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//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

#ifndef __CXX_Objects__h
#define __CXX_Objects__h

#include "CXX/WrapPython.h"
#include "CXX/Version.hxx"
#include "CXX/Config.hxx"
#include "CXX/Exception.hxx"

#include <iostream>
#include STR_STREAM
#include <string>
#include <iterator>
#include <utility>
#include <typeinfo>

namespace Py
{
    typedef int sequence_index_type;    // type of an index into a sequence

    // Forward declarations
    class Object;
    class Type;
    template<TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> class SeqBase;
    class String;
    class List;
    template<TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> class MapBase;

    // new_reference_to also overloaded below on Object
    inline PyObject* new_reference_to(PyObject* p)
    {
        Py::_XINCREF(p);
        return p;
    }

    // returning Null() from an extension method triggers a
    // Python exception
    inline PyObject* Null()
    {
        return (static_cast<PyObject*>(0));
    }

    //===========================================================================//
    // class Object
    // The purpose of this class is to serve as the most general kind of
    // Python object, for the purpose of writing C++ extensions in Python
    // Objects hold a PyObject* which they own. This pointer is always a
    // valid pointer to a Python object. In children we must maintain this behavior.
    //
    // Instructions on how to make your own class MyType descended from Object:
    // (0) Pick a base class, either Object or perhaps SeqBase<T> or MapBase<T>.
    //     This example assumes Object.

    // (1) Write a routine int MyType_Check (PyObject *) modeled after PyInt_Check,
    //     PyFloat_Check, etc.

    // (2) Add method accepts:
    //     virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const {
    //         return pyob && MyType_Check (pyob);
    // }

    // (3) Include the following constructor and copy constructor
    //
    /*
    explicit MyType (PyObject *pyob): Object(pyob) {
    validate();
}

    MyType(const Object& other): Object(other.ptr()) {
    validate();
}
    */

    // Alernate version for the constructor to allow for construction from owned pointers:
    /*
    explicit MyType (PyObject *pyob): Object(pyob) {
    validate();
}
    */

    // You may wish to add other constructors; see the classes below for examples.
    // Each constructor must use "set" to set the pointer
    // and end by validating the pointer you have created.

    // (4) Each class needs at least these two assignment operators:
    /*
    MyType& operator= (const Object& rhs) {
    return (*this = *rhs);
}

    Mytype& operator= (PyObject* rhsp) {
    if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
    set(rhsp);
    return *this;
}
    */
    // Note on accepts: constructors call the base class
    // version of a virtual when calling the base class constructor,
    // so the test has to be done explicitly in a descendent.

    // If you are inheriting from PythonExtension<T> to define an object
    // note that it contains PythonExtension<T>::check
    // which you can use in accepts when writing a wrapper class.
    // See Demo/range.h and Demo/range.cxx for an example.

    class Object
    {
    private:
        // the pointer to the Python object
        // Only Object sets this directly.
        // The default constructor for Object sets it to Py_None and
        // child classes must use "set" to set it
        //
        PyObject* p;

    protected:

        void set (PyObject* pyob, bool owned = false)
        {
            release();
            p = pyob;
            if (!owned)
            {
                Py::_XINCREF (p);
            }
            validate();
        }

        void release ()
        {
            Py::_XDECREF (p);
            p = 0;
        }

        void validate()
        {
            // release pointer if not the right type
            if (! accepts (p))
            {
                release ();
                if(PyErr_Occurred())
                { // Error message already set
                    throw Exception();
                }
                // Better error message if RTTI available
#if defined( _CPPRTTI ) || defined(__GNUG__)
                std::string s("CXX : Error creating object of type ");
                s += (typeid (*this)).name();
                throw TypeError (s);
#else
                throw TypeError ("CXX: type error.");
#endif
            }
        }

    public:
        // Constructor acquires new ownership of pointer unless explicitly told not to.
        explicit Object (PyObject* pyob=Py::_None(), bool owned = false): p (pyob)
        {
            if(!owned)
            {
                Py::_XINCREF (p);
            }
            validate();
        }

        // Copy constructor acquires new ownership of pointer
        Object (const Object& ob): p(ob.p)
        {
            Py::_XINCREF (p);
            validate();
        }

        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer
        Object& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            set(rhs.p);
            return *this;
        }

        Object& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }

        // Destructor
        virtual ~Object ()
        {
            release ();
        }

        // Loaning the pointer to others, retain ownership
        PyObject* operator* () const
        {
            return p;
        }

        // Explicit reference_counting changes
        void increment_reference_count()
        {
            Py::_XINCREF(p);
        }

        void decrement_reference_count()
        {
            // not allowed to commit suicide, however
            if(reference_count() == 1)
            throw RuntimeError("Object::decrement_reference_count error.");
            Py::_XDECREF(p);
        }
        // Would like to call this pointer() but messes up STL in SeqBase<T>
        PyObject* ptr () const
        {
            return p;
        }

        //
        // Queries
        //

        // Can pyob be used in this object's constructor?
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return (pyob != 0);
        }

        Py_ssize_t reference_count () const
        { // the reference count
            return p ? p->ob_refcnt : 0;
        }

        Type type () const; // the type object associated with this one

        String str () const; // the str() representation

        std::string as_string() const;

        String repr () const; // the repr () representation

        List dir () const; // the dir() list

        bool hasAttr (const std::string& s) const
        {
            return PyObject_HasAttrString (p, const_cast<char*>(s.c_str())) ? true: false;
        }

        Object getAttr (const std::string& s) const
        {
            return Object (PyObject_GetAttrString (p, const_cast<char*>(s.c_str())), true);
        }

        Object getItem (const Object& key) const
        {
            return Object (PyObject_GetItem(p, *key), true);
        }

        long hashValue () const
        {
            return PyObject_Hash (p);
        }

        //
        // int print (FILE* fp, int flags=Py_Print_RAW)
        //{
        //    return PyObject_Print (p, fp, flags);
        //}
        //
        bool is(PyObject *pother) const
        {  // identity test
            return p == pother;
        }

        bool is(const Object& other) const
        { // identity test
            return p == other.p;
        }

        bool isNone() const
        {
            return p == Py_None;
        }

        bool isCallable () const
        {
            return PyCallable_Check (p) != 0;
        }

        bool isInstance () const
        {
            return PyInstance_Check (p) != 0;
        }

        bool isDict () const
        {
            return Py::_Dict_Check (p);
        }

        bool isList () const
        {
            return Py::_List_Check (p);
        }

        bool isMapping () const
        {
            return PyMapping_Check (p) != 0;
        }

        bool isNumeric () const
        {
            return PyNumber_Check (p) != 0;
        }

        bool isSequence () const
        {
            return PySequence_Check (p) != 0;
        }

        bool isTrue () const
        {
            return PyObject_IsTrue (p) != 0;
        }

        bool isType (const Type& t) const;

        bool isTuple() const
        {
            return Py::_Tuple_Check(p);
        }

        bool isString() const
        {
            return Py::_String_Check(p) || Py::_Unicode_Check(p);
        }

        bool isUnicode() const
        {
            return Py::_Unicode_Check(p);
        }

        // Commands
        void setAttr (const std::string& s, const Object& value)
        {
            if(PyObject_SetAttrString (p, const_cast<char*>(s.c_str()), *value) == -1)
            throw AttributeError ("getAttr failed.");
        }

        void delAttr (const std::string& s)
        {
            if(PyObject_DelAttrString (p, const_cast<char*>(s.c_str())) == -1)
            throw AttributeError ("delAttr failed.");
        }

        // PyObject_SetItem is too weird to be using from C++
        // so it is intentionally omitted.

        void delItem (const Object& key)
        {
            //if(PyObject_DelItem(p, *key) == -1)
            // failed to link on Windows?
            throw KeyError("delItem failed.");
        }
        // Equality and comparison use PyObject_Compare

        bool operator==(const Object& o2) const
        {
            int k = PyObject_Compare (p, *o2);
            if (PyErr_Occurred()) throw Exception();
            return k == 0;
        }

        bool operator!=(const Object& o2) const
        {
            int k = PyObject_Compare (p, *o2);
            if (PyErr_Occurred()) throw Exception();
            return k != 0;

        }

        bool operator>=(const Object& o2) const
        {
            int k = PyObject_Compare (p, *o2);
            if (PyErr_Occurred()) throw Exception();
            return k >= 0;
        }

        bool operator<=(const Object& o2) const
        {
            int k = PyObject_Compare (p, *o2);
            if (PyErr_Occurred()) throw Exception();
            return k <= 0;
        }

        bool operator<(const Object& o2) const
        {
            int k = PyObject_Compare (p, *o2);
            if (PyErr_Occurred()) throw Exception();
            return k < 0;
        }

        bool operator>(const Object& o2) const
        {
            int k = PyObject_Compare (p, *o2);
            if (PyErr_Occurred()) throw Exception();
            return k > 0;
        }
    };
    // End of class Object
    inline PyObject* new_reference_to(const Object& g)
    {
        PyObject* p = g.ptr();
        Py::_XINCREF(p);
        return p;
    }

    // Nothing() is what an extension method returns if
    // there is no other return value.
    inline Object Nothing()
    {
        return Object(Py::_None());
    }

    // Python special None value
    inline Object None()
    {
        return Object(Py::_None());
    }

    // TMM: 31May'01 - Added the #ifndef so I can exlude iostreams.
#ifndef CXX_NO_IOSTREAMS
    std::ostream& operator<< (std::ostream& os, const Object& ob);
#endif

    // Class Type
    class Type: public Object
    {
    public:
        explicit Type (PyObject* pyob, bool owned = false): Object(pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Type (const Object& ob): Object(*ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Type(const Type& t): Object(t)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Type& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Type& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_Type_Check (pyob);
        }
    };


    //
    //    Convert an owned Python pointer into a CXX Object
    //
    inline Object asObject (PyObject *p)
    {
        return Object(p, true);
    }




    // ===============================================
    // class Int
    class Int: public Object
    {
    public:
        // Constructor
        Int (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Object (pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Int (const Int& ob): Object(*ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // create from long
        Int (long v = 0L): Object(PyInt_FromLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
        // create from long long
        Int (PY_LONG_LONG v): Object(PyLong_FromLongLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // create from unsigned long long
        Int (unsigned PY_LONG_LONG v): Object(PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
#endif

        // create from int
        Int (int v)
        {
            long w = v;
            set(PyInt_FromLong(w), true);
            validate();
        }

        // create from bool
        Int (bool v)
        {
            long w = v ? 1 : 0;
            set(PyInt_FromLong(w), true);
            validate();
        }

        explicit Int (const Object& ob)
        {
            set(PyNumber_Int(*ob), true);
            validate();
        }

        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer

        Int& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Int& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (PyNumber_Int(rhsp), true);
            return *this;
        }

        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_Int_Check (pyob);
        }

        // convert to long
        operator long() const
        {
            return PyInt_AsLong (ptr());
        }

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
        // convert to long long
        PY_LONG_LONG asLongLong() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsLongLong (ptr());
        }
        // convert to unsigned long long
        unsigned PY_LONG_LONG asUnsignedLongLong() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsUnsignedLongLong (ptr());
        }
#endif

        // assign from an int
        Int& operator= (int v)
        {
            set (PyInt_FromLong (long(v)), true);
            return *this;
        }

        // assign from long
        Int& operator= (long v)
        {
            set (PyInt_FromLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
        // assign from long long
        Int& operator= (PY_LONG_LONG v)
        {
            set (PyLong_FromLongLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from unsigned long long
        Int& operator= (unsigned PY_LONG_LONG v)
        {
            set (PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
#endif
    };

    // ===============================================
    // class Long
    class Long: public Object
    {
    public:
        // Constructor
        explicit Long (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Object (pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Long (const Long& ob): Object(ob.ptr())
        {
            validate();
        }

        // create from long
        explicit Long (long v = 0L)
            : Object(PyLong_FromLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // create from unsigned long
        explicit Long (unsigned long v)
            : Object(PyLong_FromUnsignedLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // create from int
        explicit Long (int v)
            : Object(PyLong_FromLong(static_cast<long>(v)), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // try to create from any object
        Long (const Object& ob)
            : Object(PyNumber_Long(*ob), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer

        Long& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Long& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (PyNumber_Long(rhsp), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_Long_Check (pyob);
        }
        // convert to long
        operator long() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsLong (ptr());
        }
        // convert to unsigned
        operator unsigned long() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsUnsignedLong (ptr());
        }
        operator double() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsDouble (ptr());
        }
        // assign from an int
        Long& operator= (int v)
        {
            set(PyLong_FromLong (long(v)), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from long
        Long& operator= (long v)
        {
            set(PyLong_FromLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from unsigned long
        Long& operator= (unsigned long v)
        {
            set(PyLong_FromUnsignedLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
    };

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
    // ===============================================
    // class LongLong
    class LongLong: public Object
    {
    public:
        // Constructor
        explicit LongLong (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Object (pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        LongLong (const LongLong& ob): Object(ob.ptr())
        {
            validate();
        }
        // create from long long
        explicit LongLong (long long v = 0L)
            : Object(PyLong_FromLongLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // create from unsigned long long
        explicit LongLong (unsigned long long v)
            : Object(PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // create from long
        explicit LongLong (long v)
            : Object(PyLong_FromLongLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // create from unsigned long
        explicit LongLong (unsigned long v)
            : Object(PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong(v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // create from int
        explicit LongLong (int v)
            : Object(PyLong_FromLongLong(static_cast<long long>(v)), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // try to create from any object
        LongLong (const Object& ob)
            : Object(PyNumber_Long(*ob), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer

        LongLong& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        LongLong& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (PyNumber_Long(rhsp), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_Long_Check (pyob);
        }
        // convert to long long
        operator long long() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsLongLong (ptr());
        }
        // convert to unsigned long
        operator unsigned long long() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsUnsignedLongLong (ptr());
        }
        // convert to long
        operator long() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsLong (ptr());
        }
        // convert to unsigned
        operator unsigned long() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsUnsignedLong (ptr());
        }
        operator double() const
        {
            return PyLong_AsDouble (ptr());
        }
        // assign from an int
        LongLong& operator= (int v)
        {
            set(PyLong_FromLongLong (long(v)), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from long long
        LongLong& operator= (long long v)
        {
            set(PyLong_FromLongLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from unsigned long long
        LongLong& operator= (unsigned long long v)
        {
            set(PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from long
        LongLong& operator= (long v)
        {
            set(PyLong_FromLongLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from unsigned long
        LongLong& operator= (unsigned long v)
        {
            set(PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
    };
#endif

    // ===============================================
    // class Float
    //
    class Float: public Object
    {
    public:
        // Constructor
        explicit Float (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Object(pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Float (const Float& f): Object(f)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // make from double
        explicit Float (double v=0.0)
            : Object(PyFloat_FromDouble (v), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // try to make from any object
        Float (const Object& ob)
            : Object(PyNumber_Float(*ob), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Float& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Float& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (PyNumber_Float(rhsp), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_Float_Check (pyob);
        }
        // convert to double
        operator double () const
        {
            return PyFloat_AsDouble (ptr());
        }
        // assign from a double
        Float& operator= (double v)
        {
            set(PyFloat_FromDouble (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from an int
        Float& operator= (int v)
        {
            set(PyFloat_FromDouble (double(v)), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from long
        Float& operator= (long v)
        {
            set(PyFloat_FromDouble (double(v)), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from an Int
        Float& operator= (const Int& iob)
        {
            set(PyFloat_FromDouble (double(long(iob))), true);
            return *this;
        }
    };

    // ===============================================
    // class Complex
    class Complex: public Object
    {
    public:
        // Constructor
        explicit Complex (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Object(pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Complex (const Complex& f): Object(f)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // make from double
        explicit Complex (double v=0.0, double w=0.0)
            :Object(PyComplex_FromDoubles (v, w), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Complex& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Complex& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_Complex_Check (pyob);
        }
        // convert to Py_complex
        operator Py_complex () const
        {
            return PyComplex_AsCComplex (ptr());
        }
        // assign from a Py_complex
        Complex& operator= (const Py_complex& v)
        {
            set(PyComplex_FromCComplex (v), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from a double
        Complex& operator= (double v)
        {
            set(PyComplex_FromDoubles (v, 0.0), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from an int
        Complex& operator= (int v)
        {
            set(PyComplex_FromDoubles (double(v), 0.0), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from long
        Complex& operator= (long v)
        {
            set(PyComplex_FromDoubles (double(v), 0.0), true);
            return *this;
        }
        // assign from an Int
        Complex& operator= (const Int& iob)
        {
            set(PyComplex_FromDoubles (double(long(iob)), 0.0), true);
            return *this;
        }

        double real() const
        {
            return PyComplex_RealAsDouble(ptr());
        }

        double imag() const
        {
            return PyComplex_ImagAsDouble(ptr());
        }
    };
    // Sequences
    // Sequences are here represented as sequences of items of type T.
    // The base class SeqBase<T> represents that.
    // In basic Python T is always "Object".

    // seqref<T> is what you get if you get elements from a non-const SeqBase<T>.
    // Note: seqref<T> could probably be a nested class in SeqBase<T> but that might stress
    // some compilers needlessly. Simlarly for mapref later.

    // While this class is not intended for enduser use, it needs some public
    // constructors for the benefit of the STL.

    // See Scott Meyer's More Essential C++ for a description of proxies.
    // This application is even more complicated. We are doing an unusual thing
    // in having a double proxy. If we want the STL to work
    // properly we have to compromise by storing the rvalue inside. The
    // entire Object API is repeated so that things like s[i].isList() will
    // work properly.

    // Still, once in a while a weird compiler message may occur using expressions like x[i]
    // Changing them to Object(x[i]) helps the compiler to understand that the
    // conversion of a seqref to an Object is wanted.

    template<TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T>
    class seqref
    {
    protected:
        SeqBase<T>& s; // the sequence
        int offset; // item number
        T the_item; // lvalue
    public:

        seqref (SeqBase<T>& seq, sequence_index_type j)
            : s(seq), offset(j), the_item (s.getItem(j))
        {}

        seqref (const seqref<T>& range)
            : s(range.s), offset(range.offset), the_item(range.the_item)
        {}

        // TMM: added this seqref ctor for use with STL algorithms
        seqref (Object& obj)
            : s(dynamic_cast< SeqBase<T>&>(obj))
            , offset( NULL )
            , the_item(s.getItem(offset))
        {}
        ~seqref()
        {}

        operator T() const
        { // rvalue
            return the_item;
        }

        seqref<T>& operator=(const seqref<T>& rhs)
        { //used as lvalue
            the_item = rhs.the_item;
            s.setItem(offset, the_item);
            return *this;
        }

        seqref<T>& operator=(const T& ob)
        { // used as lvalue
            the_item = ob;
            s.setItem(offset, ob);
            return *this;
        }

        // forward everything else to the item
        PyObject* ptr () const
        {
            return the_item.ptr();
        }

        int reference_count () const
        { // the reference count
            return the_item.reference_count();
        }

        Type type () const
        {
            return the_item.type();
        }

        String str () const;

        String repr () const;

        bool hasAttr (const std::string& attr_name) const
        {
            return the_item.hasAttr(attr_name);
        }

        Object getAttr (const std::string& attr_name) const
        {
            return the_item.getAttr(attr_name);
        }

        Object getItem (const Object& key) const
        {
            return the_item.getItem(key);
        }

        long hashValue () const
        {
            return the_item.hashValue();
        }

        bool isCallable () const
        {
            return the_item.isCallable();
        }

        bool isInstance () const
        {
            return the_item.isInstance();
        }

        bool isDict () const
        {
            return the_item.isDict();
        }

        bool isList () const
        {
            return the_item.isList();
        }

        bool isMapping () const
        {
            return the_item.isMapping();
        }

        bool isNumeric () const
        {
            return the_item.isNumeric();
        }

        bool isSequence () const
        {
            return the_item.isSequence();
        }

        bool isTrue () const
        {
            return the_item.isTrue();
        }

        bool isType (const Type& t) const
        {
            return the_item.isType (t);
        }

        bool isTuple() const
        {
            return the_item.isTuple();
        }

        bool isString() const
        {
            return the_item.isString();
        }
        // Commands
        void setAttr (const std::string& attr_name, const Object& value)
        {
            the_item.setAttr(attr_name, value);
        }

        void delAttr (const std::string& attr_name)
        {
            the_item.delAttr(attr_name);
        }

        void delItem (const Object& key)
        {
            the_item.delItem(key);
        }

        bool operator==(const Object& o2) const
        {
            return the_item == o2;
        }

        bool operator!=(const Object& o2) const
        {
            return the_item != o2;
        }

        bool operator>=(const Object& o2) const
        {
            return the_item >= o2;
        }

        bool operator<=(const Object& o2) const
        {
            return the_item <= o2;
        }

        bool operator<(const Object& o2) const
        {
            return the_item < o2;
        }

        bool operator>(const Object& o2) const
        {
            return the_item > o2;
        }
    }; // end of seqref


    // class SeqBase<T>
    // ...the base class for all sequence types

    template<TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T>
    class SeqBase: public Object
    {
    public:
        // STL definitions
        typedef size_t size_type;
        typedef seqref<T> reference;
        typedef T const_reference;
        typedef seqref<T>* pointer;
        typedef int difference_type;
        typedef T value_type;        // TMM: 26Jun'01

        virtual size_type max_size() const
        {
            return std::string::npos; // ?
        }

        virtual size_type capacity() const
        {
            return size();
        }

        virtual void swap(SeqBase<T>& c)
        {
            SeqBase<T> temp = c;
            c = ptr();
            set(temp.ptr());
        }

        virtual size_type size () const
        {
            return PySequence_Length (ptr());
        }

        explicit SeqBase<T> ()
            :Object(PyTuple_New(0), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        explicit SeqBase<T> (PyObject* pyob, bool owned=false)
            : Object(pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        SeqBase<T> (const Object& ob): Object(ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer

        SeqBase<T>& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        SeqBase<T>& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }

        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && PySequence_Check (pyob);
        }

        size_type length () const
        {
            return PySequence_Length (ptr());
        }

        // Element access
        const T operator[](sequence_index_type index) const
        {
            return getItem(index);
        }

        seqref<T> operator[](sequence_index_type index)
        {
            return seqref<T>(*this, index);
        }

        virtual T getItem (sequence_index_type i) const
        {
            return T(asObject(PySequence_GetItem (ptr(), i)));
        }

        virtual void setItem (sequence_index_type i, const T& ob)
        {
            if (PySequence_SetItem (ptr(), i, *ob) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        SeqBase<T> repeat (int count) const
        {
            return SeqBase<T> (PySequence_Repeat (ptr(), count), true);
        }

        SeqBase<T> concat (const SeqBase<T>& other) const
        {
            return SeqBase<T> (PySequence_Concat(ptr(), *other), true);
        }

        // more STL compatability
        const T front () const
        {
            return getItem(0);
        }

        seqref<T> front()
        {
            return seqref<T>(this, 0);
        }

        const T back () const
        {
            return getItem(size()-1);
        }

        seqref<T> back()
        {
            return seqref<T>(this, size()-1);
        }

        void verify_length(size_type required_size) const
        {
            if (size() != required_size)
            throw IndexError ("Unexpected SeqBase<T> length.");
        }

        void verify_length(size_type min_size, size_type max_size) const
        {
            size_type n = size();
            if (n < min_size || n > max_size)
            throw IndexError ("Unexpected SeqBase<T> length.");
        }

        class iterator
            : public random_access_iterator_parent(seqref<T>)
        {
        protected:
            friend class SeqBase<T>;
            SeqBase<T>* seq;
            int count;

        public:
            ~iterator ()
            {}

            iterator ()
                : seq( 0 )
                , count( 0 )
            {}

            iterator (SeqBase<T>* s, int where)
                : seq( s )
                , count( where )
            {}

            iterator (const iterator& other)
                : seq( other.seq )
                , count( other.count )
            {}

            bool eql (const iterator& other) const
            {
                return (*seq == *other.seq) && (count == other.count);
            }

            bool neq (const iterator& other) const
            {
                return (*seq != *other.seq) || (count != other.count);
            }

            bool lss (const iterator& other) const
            {
                return (count < other.count);
            }

            bool gtr (const iterator& other) const
            {
                return (count > other.count);
            }

            bool leq (const iterator& other) const
            {
                return (count <= other.count);
            }

            bool geq (const iterator& other) const
            {
                return (count >= other.count);
            }

            seqref<T> operator*()
            {
                return seqref<T>(*seq, count);
            }

            seqref<T> operator[] (sequence_index_type i)
            {
                return seqref<T>(*seq, count + i);
            }

            iterator& operator=(const iterator& other)
            {
                if (this == &other) return *this;
                seq = other.seq;
                count = other.count;
                return *this;
            }

            iterator operator+(int n) const
            {
                return iterator(seq, count + n);
            }

            iterator operator-(int n) const
            {
                return iterator(seq, count - n);
            }

            iterator& operator+=(int n)
            {
                count = count + n;
                return *this;
            }

            iterator& operator-=(int n)
            {
                count = count - n;
                return *this;
            }

            int operator-(const iterator& other) const
            {
                if (*seq != *other.seq)
                throw RuntimeError ("SeqBase<T>::iterator comparison error");
                return count - other.count;
            }

            // prefix ++
            iterator& operator++ ()
            { count++; return *this;}
            // postfix ++
            iterator operator++ (int)
            { return iterator(seq, count++);}
            // prefix --
            iterator& operator-- ()
            { count--; return *this;}
            // postfix --
            iterator operator-- (int)
            { return iterator(seq, count--);}

            std::string diagnose() const
            {
                std::OSTRSTREAM oss;
                oss << "iterator diagnosis " << seq << ", " << count << std::ends;
                return std::string(oss.str());
            }
        };    // end of class SeqBase<T>::iterator

        iterator begin ()
        {
            return iterator(this, 0);
        }

        iterator end ()
        {
            return iterator(this, length());
        }

        class const_iterator
            : public random_access_iterator_parent(const Object)
        {
        protected:
            friend class SeqBase<T>;
            const SeqBase<T>* seq;
            sequence_index_type count;

        public:
            ~const_iterator ()
            {}

            const_iterator ()
                : seq( 0 )
                , count( 0 )
            {}

            const_iterator (const SeqBase<T>* s, int where)
                : seq( s )
                , count( where )
            {}

            const_iterator(const const_iterator& other)
                : seq( other.seq )
                , count( other.count )
            {}

            const T operator*() const
            {
                return seq->getItem(count);
            }

            const T operator[] (sequence_index_type i) const
            {
                return seq->getItem(count + i);
            }

            const_iterator& operator=(const const_iterator& other)
            {
                if (this == &other) return *this;
                seq = other.seq;
                count = other.count;
                return *this;
            }

            const_iterator operator+(int n) const
            {
                return const_iterator(seq, count + n);
            }

            bool eql (const const_iterator& other) const
            {
                return (*seq == *other.seq) && (count == other.count);
            }

            bool neq (const const_iterator& other) const
            {
                return (*seq != *other.seq) || (count != other.count);
            }

            bool lss (const const_iterator& other) const
            {
                return (count < other.count);
            }

            bool gtr (const const_iterator& other) const
            {
                return (count > other.count);
            }

            bool leq (const const_iterator& other) const
            {
                return (count <= other.count);
            }

            bool geq (const const_iterator& other) const
            {
                return (count >= other.count);
            }

            const_iterator operator-(int n)
            {
                return const_iterator(seq, count - n);
            }

            const_iterator& operator+=(int n)
            {
                count = count + n;
                return *this;
            }

            const_iterator& operator-=(int n)
            {
                count = count - n;
                return *this;
            }

            int operator-(const const_iterator& other) const
            {
                if (*seq != *other.seq)
                throw RuntimeError ("SeqBase<T>::const_iterator::- error");
                return count - other.count;
            }
            // prefix ++
            const_iterator& operator++ ()
            { count++; return *this;}
            // postfix ++
            const_iterator operator++ (int)
            { return const_iterator(seq, count++);}
            // prefix --
            const_iterator& operator-- ()
            { count--; return *this;}
            // postfix --
            const_iterator operator-- (int)
            { return const_iterator(seq, count--);}
        };    // end of class SeqBase<T>::const_iterator

        const_iterator begin () const
        {
            return const_iterator(this, 0);
        }

        const_iterator end () const
        {
            return const_iterator(this, length());
        }
    };

    // Here's an important typedef you might miss if reading too fast...
    typedef SeqBase<Object> Sequence;

    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator==(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator!=(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator< (const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator> (const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator<=(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator>=(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::iterator& right);

    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator==(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator!=(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator< (const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator> (const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator<=(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator>=(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME SeqBase<T>::const_iterator& right); 


    extern bool operator==(const Sequence::iterator& left, const Sequence::iterator& right);
    extern bool operator!=(const Sequence::iterator& left, const Sequence::iterator& right);
    extern bool operator< (const Sequence::iterator& left, const Sequence::iterator& right);
    extern bool operator> (const Sequence::iterator& left, const Sequence::iterator& right);
    extern bool operator<=(const Sequence::iterator& left, const Sequence::iterator& right);
    extern bool operator>=(const Sequence::iterator& left, const Sequence::iterator& right);

    extern bool operator==(const Sequence::const_iterator& left, const Sequence::const_iterator& right);
    extern bool operator!=(const Sequence::const_iterator& left, const Sequence::const_iterator& right);
    extern bool operator< (const Sequence::const_iterator& left, const Sequence::const_iterator& right);
    extern bool operator> (const Sequence::const_iterator& left, const Sequence::const_iterator& right);
    extern bool operator<=(const Sequence::const_iterator& left, const Sequence::const_iterator& right);
    extern bool operator>=(const Sequence::const_iterator& left, const Sequence::const_iterator& right); 

    // ==================================================
    // class Char
    // Python strings return strings as individual elements.
    // I'll try having a class Char which is a String of length 1
    //
    typedef std::basic_string<Py_UNICODE> unicodestring;
    extern Py_UNICODE unicode_null_string[1];

    class Char: public Object
    {
    public:
        explicit Char (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Object(pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Char (const Object& ob): Object(ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Char (const std::string& v = "")
            :Object(PyString_FromStringAndSize (const_cast<char*>(v.c_str()),1), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Char (char v)
            : Object(PyString_FromStringAndSize (&v, 1), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Char (Py_UNICODE v)
            : Object(PyUnicode_FromUnicode (&v, 1), true)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer
        Char& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Char& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }

        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && (Py::_String_Check(pyob) || Py::_Unicode_Check(pyob)) && PySequence_Length (pyob) == 1;
        }

        // Assignment from C string
        Char& operator= (const std::string& v)
        {
            set(PyString_FromStringAndSize (const_cast<char*>(v.c_str()),1), true);
            return *this;
        }

        Char& operator= (char v)
        {
            set(PyString_FromStringAndSize (&v, 1), true);
            return *this;
        }

        Char& operator= (const unicodestring& v)
        {
            set(PyUnicode_FromUnicode (const_cast<Py_UNICODE*>(v.data()),1), true);
            return *this;
        }

        Char& operator= (Py_UNICODE v)
        {
            set(PyUnicode_FromUnicode (&v, 1), true);
            return *this;
        }

        // Conversion
        operator String() const;

        operator std::string () const
        {
            return std::string(PyString_AsString (ptr()));
        }
    };

    class String: public SeqBase<Char>
    {
    public:
        virtual size_type capacity() const
        {
            return max_size();
        }

        explicit String (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): SeqBase<Char>(pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        String (const Object& ob): SeqBase<Char>(ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        String()
            : SeqBase<Char>( PyString_FromStringAndSize( "", 0 ), true )
        {
            validate();
        }

        String( const std::string& v )
            : SeqBase<Char>( PyString_FromStringAndSize( const_cast<char*>(v.data()),
                static_cast<int>( v.length() ) ), true )
        {
            validate();
        }

        String( const char *s, const char *encoding, const char *error="strict" )
            : SeqBase<Char>( PyUnicode_Decode( s, strlen( s ), encoding, error ), true )
        {
            validate();
        }

        String( const char *s, int len, const char *encoding, const char *error="strict" )
            : SeqBase<Char>( PyUnicode_Decode( s, len, encoding, error ), true )
        {
            validate();
        }

        String( const std::string &s, const char *encoding, const char *error="strict" )
            : SeqBase<Char>( PyUnicode_Decode( s.c_str(), s.length(), encoding, error ), true )
        {
            validate();
        }

        String( const std::string& v, std::string::size_type vsize )
            : SeqBase<Char>(PyString_FromStringAndSize( const_cast<char*>(v.data()),
                    static_cast<int>( vsize ) ), true)
        {
            validate();
        }

        String( const char *v, int vsize )
            : SeqBase<Char>(PyString_FromStringAndSize( const_cast<char*>(v), vsize ), true )
        {
            validate();
        }

        String( const char* v )
            : SeqBase<Char>( PyString_FromString( v ), true )
        {
            validate();
        }

        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer
        String& operator= ( const Object& rhs )
        {
            return *this = *rhs;
        }

        String& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if( ptr() == rhsp )
                return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && (Py::_String_Check(pyob) || Py::_Unicode_Check(pyob));
        }

        // Assignment from C string
        String& operator= (const std::string& v)
        {
            set( PyString_FromStringAndSize( const_cast<char*>( v.data() ),
                    static_cast<int>( v.length() ) ), true );
            return *this;
        }
        String& operator= (const unicodestring& v)
        {
            set( PyUnicode_FromUnicode( const_cast<Py_UNICODE*>( v.data() ),
                    static_cast<int>( v.length() ) ), true );
            return *this;
        }


        // Encode
        String encode( const char *encoding, const char *error="strict" )
        {
            if( isUnicode() )
        {
                return String( PyUnicode_AsEncodedString( ptr(), encoding, error ) );
        }
            else
        {
                return String( PyString_AsEncodedObject( ptr(), encoding, error ) );
        }
        }

        String decode( const char *encoding, const char *error="strict" )
        {
            return Object( PyString_AsDecodedObject( ptr(), encoding, error ) );
        }

        // Queries
        virtual size_type size () const
        {
            if( isUnicode() )
        {
                return static_cast<size_type>( PyUnicode_GET_SIZE (ptr()) );
        }
            else
        {
                return static_cast<size_type>( PyString_Size (ptr()) );
        }
        }

        operator std::string () const
        {
            return as_std_string();
        }

        std::string as_std_string() const
        {
            if( isUnicode() )
        {
                throw TypeError("cannot return std::string from Unicode object");
        }
            else
        {
                return std::string( PyString_AsString( ptr() ), static_cast<size_type>( PyString_Size( ptr() ) ) );
        }
        }

        unicodestring as_unicodestring() const
        {
            if( isUnicode() )
        {
                return unicodestring( PyUnicode_AS_UNICODE( ptr() ),
                    static_cast<size_type>( PyUnicode_GET_SIZE( ptr() ) ) );
        }
            else
        {
                throw TypeError("can only return unicodestring from Unicode object");
        }
        }
    };

    // ==================================================
    // class Tuple
    class Tuple: public Sequence
    {
    public:
        virtual void setItem (sequence_index_type offset, const Object&ob)
        {
            // note PyTuple_SetItem is a thief...
            if(PyTuple_SetItem (ptr(), offset, new_reference_to(ob)) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        // Constructor
        explicit Tuple (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Sequence (pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Tuple (const Object& ob): Sequence(ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // New tuple of a given size
        explicit Tuple (int size = 0)
        {
            set(PyTuple_New (size), true);
            validate ();
            for (sequence_index_type i=0; i < size; i++)
            {
                if(PyTuple_SetItem (ptr(), i, new_reference_to(Py::_None())) == -1)
                {
                    throw Exception();
                }
            }
        }
        // Tuple from any sequence
        explicit Tuple (const Sequence& s)
        {
            sequence_index_type limit( sequence_index_type( s.length() ) );

            set(PyTuple_New (limit), true);
            validate();
            
            for(sequence_index_type i=0; i < limit; i++)
            {
                if(PyTuple_SetItem (ptr(), i, new_reference_to(s[i])) == -1)
                {
                    throw Exception();
                }
            }
        }
        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer

        Tuple& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Tuple& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_Tuple_Check (pyob);
        }

        Tuple getSlice (int i, int j) const
        {
            return Tuple (PySequence_GetSlice (ptr(), i, j), true);
        }

    };

    // ==================================================
    // class List

    class List: public Sequence
    {
    public:
        // Constructor
        explicit List (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Sequence(pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }
        List (const Object& ob): Sequence(ob)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // Creation at a fixed size
        List (int size = 0)
        {
            set(PyList_New (size), true);
            validate();
            for (sequence_index_type i=0; i < size; i++)
            {
                if(PyList_SetItem (ptr(), i, new_reference_to(Py::_None())) == -1)
                {
                    throw Exception();
                }
            }
        }

        // List from a sequence
        List (const Sequence& s): Sequence()
        {
            int n = (int)s.length();
            set(PyList_New (n), true);
            validate();
            for (sequence_index_type i=0; i < n; i++)
            {
                if(PyList_SetItem (ptr(), i, new_reference_to(s[i])) == -1)
                {
                    throw Exception();
                }
            }
        }

        virtual size_type capacity() const
        {
            return max_size();
        }
        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer

        List& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        List& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_List_Check (pyob);
        }

        List getSlice (int i, int j) const
        {
            return List (PyList_GetSlice (ptr(), i, j), true);
        }

        void setSlice (int i, int j, const Object& v)
        {
            if(PyList_SetSlice (ptr(), i, j, *v) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        void append (const Object& ob)
        {
            if(PyList_Append (ptr(), *ob) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        void insert (int i, const Object& ob)
        {
            if(PyList_Insert (ptr(), i, *ob) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        void sort ()
        {
            if(PyList_Sort(ptr()) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        void reverse ()
        {
            if(PyList_Reverse(ptr()) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }
    };


    // Mappings
    // ==================================================
    template<TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T>
    class mapref
    {
    protected:
        MapBase<T>& s; // the map
        Object key; // item key
        T the_item;

    public:
        mapref<T> (MapBase<T>& map, const std::string& k)
            : s(map), the_item()
        {
            key = String(k);
            if(map.hasKey(key)) the_item = map.getItem(key);
        }

        mapref<T> (MapBase<T>& map, const Object& k)
            : s(map), key(k), the_item()
        {
            if(map.hasKey(key)) the_item = map.getItem(key);
        }

        virtual ~mapref<T>()
        {}

        // MapBase<T> stuff
        // lvalue
        mapref<T>& operator=(const mapref<T>& other)
        {
            if(this == &other) return *this;
            the_item = other.the_item;
            s.setItem(key, other.the_item);
            return *this;
        }

        mapref<T>& operator= (const T& ob)
        {
            the_item = ob;
            s.setItem (key, ob);
            return *this;
        }

        // rvalue
        operator T() const
        {
            return the_item;
        }

        // forward everything else to the_item
        PyObject* ptr () const
        {
            return the_item.ptr();
        }

        int reference_count () const
        { // the mapref count
            return the_item.reference_count();
        }

        Type type () const
        {
            return the_item.type();
        }

        String str () const
        {
            return the_item.str();
        }

        String repr () const
        {
            return the_item.repr();
        }

        bool hasAttr (const std::string& attr_name) const
        {
            return the_item.hasAttr(attr_name);
        }

        Object getAttr (const std::string& attr_name) const
        {
            return the_item.getAttr(attr_name);
        }

        Object getItem (const Object& k) const
        {
            return the_item.getItem(k);
        }

        long hashValue () const
        {
            return the_item.hashValue();
        }

        bool isCallable () const
        {
            return the_item.isCallable();
        }

        bool isInstance () const
        {
            return the_item.isInstance();
        }

        bool isList () const
        {
            return the_item.isList();
        }

        bool isMapping () const
        {
            return the_item.isMapping();
        }

        bool isNumeric () const
        {
            return the_item.isNumeric();
        }

        bool isSequence () const
        {
            return the_item.isSequence();
        }

        bool isTrue () const
        {
            return the_item.isTrue();
        }

        bool isType (const Type& t) const
        {
            return the_item.isType (t);
        }

        bool isTuple() const
        {
            return the_item.isTuple();
        }

        bool isString() const
        {
            return the_item.isString();
        }

        // Commands
        void setAttr (const std::string& attr_name, const Object& value)
        {
            the_item.setAttr(attr_name, value);
        }

        void delAttr (const std::string& attr_name)
        {
            the_item.delAttr(attr_name);
        }

        void delItem (const Object& k)
        {
            the_item.delItem(k);
        }
    }; // end of mapref

    // TMM: now for mapref<T>
    template< class T >
    bool operator==(const mapref<T>& left, const mapref<T>& right)
    {
        return true;    // NOT completed.
    }

    template< class T >
    bool operator!=(const mapref<T>& left, const mapref<T>& right)
    {
        return true;    // not completed.
    }

    template<TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T>
    class MapBase: public Object
    {
    protected:
        explicit MapBase<T>()
        {}
    public:
        // reference: proxy class for implementing []
        // TMM: 26Jun'01 - the types
        // If you assume that Python mapping is a hash_map...
        // hash_map::value_type is not assignable, but
        // (*it).second = data must be a valid expression
        typedef size_t size_type;
        typedef Object key_type;
        typedef mapref<T> data_type;
        typedef std::pair< const T, T > value_type;
        typedef std::pair< const T, mapref<T> > reference;
        typedef const std::pair< const T, const T > const_reference;
        typedef std::pair< const T, mapref<T> > pointer;

        // Constructor
        explicit MapBase<T> (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Object(pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // TMM: 02Jul'01 - changed MapBase<T> to Object in next line
        MapBase<T> (const Object& ob): Object(ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer
        MapBase<T>& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        MapBase<T>& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && PyMapping_Check(pyob);
        }

        // Clear -- PyMapping Clear is missing
        //

        void clear ()
        {
            List k = keys();
            for(List::iterator i = k.begin(); i != k.end(); i++)
            {
                delItem(*i);
            }
        }

        virtual size_type size() const
        {
            return PyMapping_Length (ptr());
        }

        // Element Access
        T operator[](const std::string& key) const
        {
            return getItem(key);
        }

        T operator[](const Object& key) const
        {
            return getItem(key);
        }

        mapref<T> operator[](const std::string& key)
        {
            return mapref<T>(*this, key);
        }

        mapref<T> operator[](const Object& key)
        {
            return mapref<T>(*this, key);
        }

        int length () const
        {
            return PyMapping_Length (ptr());
        }

        bool hasKey (const std::string& s) const
        {
            return PyMapping_HasKeyString (ptr(),const_cast<char*>(s.c_str())) != 0;
        }

        bool hasKey (const Object& s) const
        {
            return PyMapping_HasKey (ptr(), s.ptr()) != 0;
        }

        T getItem (const std::string& s) const
        {
            return T(
            asObject(PyMapping_GetItemString (ptr(),const_cast<char*>(s.c_str())))
            );
        }

        T getItem (const Object& s) const
        {
            return T(
            asObject(PyObject_GetItem (ptr(), s.ptr()))
            );
        }

        virtual void setItem (const char *s, const Object& ob)
        {
            if (PyMapping_SetItemString (ptr(), const_cast<char*>(s), *ob) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        virtual void setItem (const std::string& s, const Object& ob)
        {
            if (PyMapping_SetItemString (ptr(), const_cast<char*>(s.c_str()), *ob) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        virtual void setItem (const Object& s, const Object& ob)
        {
            if (PyObject_SetItem (ptr(), s.ptr(), ob.ptr()) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        void delItem (const std::string& s)
        {
            if (PyMapping_DelItemString (ptr(), const_cast<char*>(s.c_str())) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }

        void delItem (const Object& s)
        {
            if (PyMapping_DelItem (ptr(), *s) == -1)
            {
                throw Exception();
            }
        }
        // Queries
        List keys () const
        {
            return List(PyMapping_Keys(ptr()), true);
        }

        List values () const
        { // each returned item is a (key, value) pair
            return List(PyMapping_Values(ptr()), true);
        }

        List items () const
        {
            return List(PyMapping_Items(ptr()), true);
        }

        // iterators for MapBase<T>
        // Added by TMM: 2Jul'01 - NOT COMPLETED
        // There is still a bug.  I decided to stop, before fixing the bug, because
        // this can't be halfway efficient until Python gets built-in iterators.
        // My current soln is to iterate over the map by getting a copy of its keys
        // and iterating over that.  Not a good solution.

        // The iterator holds a MapBase<T>* rather than a MapBase<T> because that's
        // how the sequence iterator is implemented and it works.  But it does seem
        // odd to me - we are iterating over the map object, not the reference.

#if 0    // here is the test code with which I found the (still existing) bug
        typedef cxx::Dict    d_t;
        d_t    d;
        cxx::String    s1("blah");
        cxx::String    s2("gorf");
        d[ "one" ] = s1;
        d[ "two" ] = s1;
        d[ "three" ] = s2;
        d[ "four" ] = s2;

        d_t::iterator    it;
        it = d.begin();        // this (using the assignment operator) is causing
        // a problem; if I just use the copy ctor it works fine.
        for( ; it != d.end(); ++it )
        {
            d_t::value_type    vt( *it );
            cxx::String rs = vt.second.repr();
            std::string ls = rs.operator std::string();
            fprintf( stderr, "%s\n", ls );
        }
#endif // 0

        class iterator
        {
            // : public forward_iterator_parent( std::pair<const T,T> ) {
        protected:
            typedef std::forward_iterator_tag iterator_category;
            typedef std::pair< const T, T > value_type;
            typedef int difference_type;
            typedef std::pair< const T, mapref<T> >    pointer;
            typedef std::pair< const T, mapref<T> >    reference;

            friend class MapBase<T>;
            //
            MapBase<T>* map;
            List    keys;            // for iterating over the map
            List::iterator    pos;        // index into the keys

        public:
            ~iterator ()
            {}

            iterator ()
                : map( 0 )
                , keys()
                , pos()
            {}

            iterator (MapBase<T>* m, bool end = false )
                : map( m )
                , keys( m->keys() )
                , pos( end ? keys.end() : keys.begin() )
            {}

            iterator (const iterator& other)
                : map( other.map )
                , keys( other.keys )
                , pos( other.pos )
            {}

            reference operator*()
            {
                Object key = *pos;
                return std::make_pair(key, mapref<T>(*map,key));
            }

            iterator& operator=(const iterator& other)
            {
                if (this == &other)
                    return *this;
                map = other.map;
                keys = other.keys;
                pos = other.pos;
                return *this;
            }

            bool eql(const iterator& right) const
            {
                return *map == *right.map && pos == right.pos;
            }
            bool neq( const iterator& right ) const
            {
                return *map != *right.map || pos != right.pos;
            }

            // pointer operator->() {
            //    return ;
            // }

            // prefix ++
            iterator& operator++ ()
            { pos++; return *this;}
            // postfix ++
            iterator operator++ (int)
            { return iterator(map, keys, pos++);}
            // prefix --
            iterator& operator-- ()
            { pos--; return *this;}
            // postfix --
            iterator operator-- (int)
            { return iterator(map, keys, pos--);}

            std::string diagnose() const
            {
                std::OSTRSTREAM oss;
                oss << "iterator diagnosis " << map << ", " << pos << std::ends;
                return std::string(oss.str());
            }
        };    // end of class MapBase<T>::iterator

        iterator begin ()
        {
            return iterator(this);
        }

        iterator end ()
        {
            return iterator(this, true);
        }

        class const_iterator
        {
        protected:
            typedef std::forward_iterator_tag iterator_category;
            typedef const std::pair< const T, T > value_type;
            typedef int difference_type;
            typedef const std::pair< const T, T > pointer;
            typedef const std::pair< const T, T > reference;

            friend class MapBase<T>;
            const MapBase<T>* map;
            List    keys;    // for iterating over the map
            List::iterator    pos;        // index into the keys

        public:
            ~const_iterator ()
            {}

            const_iterator ()
                : map( 0 )
                , keys()
                , pos()
            {}

            const_iterator (const MapBase<T>* m, List k, List::iterator p )
                : map( m )
                , keys( k )
                , pos( p )
            {}

            const_iterator(const const_iterator& other)
                : map( other.map )
                , keys( other.keys )
                , pos( other.pos )
            {}

            bool eql(const const_iterator& right) const
            {
                return *map == *right.map && pos == right.pos;
            }
            bool neq( const const_iterator& right ) const
            {
                return *map != *right.map || pos != right.pos;
            }


            //            const_reference    operator*() {
            //                Object key = *pos;
            //                return std::make_pair( key, map->[key] );
            // GCC < 3 barfes on this line at the '['.
            //         }

            const_iterator& operator=(const const_iterator& other)
            {
                if (this == &other) return *this;
                map = other.map;
                keys = other.keys;
                pos = other.pos;
                return *this;
            }

            // prefix ++
            const_iterator& operator++ ()
            { pos++; return *this;}
            // postfix ++
            const_iterator operator++ (int)
            { return const_iterator(map, keys, pos++);}
            // prefix --
            const_iterator& operator-- ()
            { pos--; return *this;}
            // postfix --
            const_iterator operator-- (int)
            { return const_iterator(map, keys, pos--);}
        };    // end of class MapBase<T>::const_iterator

        const_iterator begin () const
        {
            return const_iterator(this, 0);
        }

        const_iterator end () const
        {
            return const_iterator(this, length());
        }

    };    // end of MapBase<T>

    typedef MapBase<Object> Mapping;

    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator==(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME MapBase<T>::iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME MapBase<T>::iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator!=(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME MapBase<T>::iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME MapBase<T>::iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator==(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME MapBase<T>::const_iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME MapBase<T>::const_iterator& right);
    template <TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T> bool operator!=(const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME MapBase<T>::const_iterator& left, const EXPLICIT_TYPENAME MapBase<T>::const_iterator& right);

    extern bool operator==(const Mapping::iterator& left, const Mapping::iterator& right);
    extern bool operator!=(const Mapping::iterator& left, const Mapping::iterator& right);
    extern bool operator==(const Mapping::const_iterator& left, const Mapping::const_iterator& right);
    extern bool operator!=(const Mapping::const_iterator& left, const Mapping::const_iterator& right);


    // ==================================================
    // class Dict
    class Dict: public Mapping
    {
    public:
        // Constructor
        explicit Dict (PyObject *pyob, bool owned=false): Mapping (pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }
        Dict (const Dict& ob): Mapping(ob)
        {
            validate();
        }
        // Creation
        Dict ()
        {
            set(PyDict_New (), true);
            validate();
        }
        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer

        Dict& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Dict& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set(rhsp);
            return *this;
        }
        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && Py::_Dict_Check (pyob);
        }
    };

    class Callable: public Object
    {
    public:
        // Constructor
        explicit Callable (): Object()  {}
        explicit Callable (PyObject *pyob, bool owned = false): Object (pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Callable (const Object& ob): Object(ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // Assignment acquires new ownership of pointer

        Callable& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Callable& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set (rhsp);
            return *this;
        }

        // Membership
        virtual bool accepts (PyObject *pyob) const
        {
            return pyob && PyCallable_Check (pyob);
        }

        // Call
        Object apply(const Tuple& args) const
        {
            return asObject(PyObject_CallObject(ptr(), args.ptr()));
        }

        // Call with keywords
        Object apply(const Tuple& args, const Dict& kw) const
        {
            return asObject( PyEval_CallObjectWithKeywords( ptr(), args.ptr(), kw.ptr() ) );
        }

        Object apply(PyObject* pargs = 0) const
        {
            return apply (Tuple(pargs));
        }
    };

    class Module: public Object
    {
    public:
        explicit Module (PyObject* pyob, bool owned = false): Object (pyob, owned)
        {
            validate();
        }

        // Construct from module name
        explicit Module (const std::string&s): Object()
        {
            PyObject *m = PyImport_AddModule( const_cast<char *>(s.c_str()) );
            set( m, false );
            validate ();
        }

        // Copy constructor acquires new ownership of pointer
        Module (const Module& ob): Object(*ob)
        {
            validate();
        }

        Module& operator= (const Object& rhs)
        {
            return (*this = *rhs);
        }

        Module& operator= (PyObject* rhsp)
        {
            if(ptr() == rhsp) return *this;
            set(rhsp);
            return *this;
        }

        Dict getDict()
        {
            return Dict(PyModule_GetDict(ptr()));
            // Caution -- PyModule_GetDict returns borrowed reference!
        }
    };

    // Numeric interface
    inline Object operator+ (const Object& a)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Positive(*a));
    }
    inline Object operator- (const Object& a)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Negative(*a));
    }

    inline Object abs(const Object& a)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Absolute(*a));
    }

    inline std::pair<Object,Object> coerce(const Object& a, const Object& b)
    {
        PyObject *p1, *p2;
        p1 = *a;
        p2 = *b;
        if(PyNumber_Coerce(&p1,&p2) == -1)
        {
            throw Exception();
        }
        return std::pair<Object,Object>(asObject(p1), asObject(p2));
    }

    inline Object operator+ (const Object& a, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Add(*a, *b));
    }
    inline Object operator+ (const Object& a, int j)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Add(*a, *Int(j)));
    }
    inline Object operator+ (const Object& a, double v)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Add(*a, *Float(v)));
    }
    inline Object operator+ (int j, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Add(*Int(j), *b));
    }
    inline Object operator+ (double v, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Add(*Float(v), *b));
    }

    inline Object operator- (const Object& a, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Subtract(*a, *b));
    }
    inline Object operator- (const Object& a, int j)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Subtract(*a, *Int(j)));
    }
    inline Object operator- (const Object& a, double v)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Subtract(*a, *Float(v)));
    }
    inline Object operator- (int j, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Subtract(*Int(j), *b));
    }
    inline Object operator- (double v, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Subtract(*Float(v), *b));
    }

    inline Object operator* (const Object& a, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Multiply(*a, *b));
    }
    inline Object operator* (const Object& a, int j)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Multiply(*a, *Int(j)));
    }
    inline Object operator* (const Object& a, double v)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Multiply(*a, *Float(v)));
    }
    inline Object operator* (int j, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Multiply(*Int(j), *b));
    }
    inline Object operator* (double v, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Multiply(*Float(v), *b));
    }

    inline Object operator/ (const Object& a, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Divide(*a, *b));
    }
    inline Object operator/ (const Object& a, int j)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Divide(*a, *Int(j)));
    }
    inline Object operator/ (const Object& a, double v)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Divide(*a, *Float(v)));
    }
    inline Object operator/ (int j, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Divide(*Int(j), *b));
    }
    inline Object operator/ (double v, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Divide(*Float(v), *b));
    }

    inline Object operator% (const Object& a, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Remainder(*a, *b));
    }
    inline Object operator% (const Object& a, int j)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Remainder(*a, *Int(j)));
    }
    inline Object operator% (const Object& a, double v)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Remainder(*a, *Float(v)));
    }
    inline Object operator% (int j, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Remainder(*Int(j), *b));
    }
    inline Object operator% (double v, const Object& b)
    {
        return asObject(PyNumber_Remainder(*Float(v), *b));
    }

    inline Object type(const Exception&) // return the type of the error
    {
        PyObject *ptype, *pvalue, *ptrace;
        PyErr_Fetch(&ptype, &pvalue, &ptrace);
        Object result;
        if(ptype) result = ptype;
        PyErr_Restore(ptype, pvalue, ptrace);
        return result;
    }

    inline Object value(const Exception&) // return the value of the error
    {
        PyObject *ptype, *pvalue, *ptrace;
        PyErr_Fetch(&ptype, &pvalue, &ptrace);
        Object result;
        if(pvalue) result = pvalue;
        PyErr_Restore(ptype, pvalue, ptrace);
        return result;
    }

    inline Object trace(const Exception&) // return the traceback of the error
    {
        PyObject *ptype, *pvalue, *ptrace;
        PyErr_Fetch(&ptype, &pvalue, &ptrace);
        Object result;
        if(ptrace) result = ptrace;
        PyErr_Restore(ptype, pvalue, ptrace);
        return result;
    }

template<TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T>
String seqref<T>::str () const
{
    return the_item.str();
}

template<TEMPLATE_TYPENAME T>
String seqref<T>::repr () const
{
    return the_item.repr();
}

} // namespace Py
#endif    // __CXX_Objects__h

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